Wednesday, September 19, 2018

[Guest Article: Katy-Rose] The Autumn Equinox as a British Druid

A note from Witchy Words:  This article was offered to me by my good friend Katy in order to give my readers a broader perspective on the various practices of paganism during this time of the year.  Enjoy!

I began my journey in June 2004 as a solitary witch of no specific tradition. As I grew, my path changed. I have been solitary, partaken in Alexandrian Wiccan rituals, led esbat rites with friends, and found Druidry in 2009. For the scholar in me, having the Welsh mythos to underlie my practise (and living in the British Isles), this practise resonates for me like no other.

In 2012, I realised that I was a Druid, no matter what label I gave myself. Druids still use the four elements and directions but, in our day-to-day practise, we focus on three aspects: Land, sea and sky. For me, the fact we are on an island really shapes the experiences of the natural world.

So now you know who I am, let’s jump in. 

The Autumnal Equinox is, hands down, my favourite festival.

In fact, Autumn as a season, is my favourite time of the year. Here in England, we actually get less rainfall, more clear, blue skies and sunshine but without ridiculous heat-waves. I love the colours but, mostly, I love the way every breath feels fresh and new and cool.

Traditionally, in the Northern Hemisphere, this occurs around 20-23 September. This is the day when night and day are equal, hence the term “equinox” which literally means “equal night.”

For many pagans and witches, this is a time of balance, of harvest, and represents the coming of winter as summer fades. In Wicca, this is often known as Mabon, which means ‘Son’ or Modron, which means ‘Mother.’  From the colours of red and orange to apples and leaves adorning altars, these are fairly universal concepts.

Although not specific to Druidry, the main story of the Mabon is a Welsh tale. Long story short, a Mother’s son is kidnapped and she journeys to find him, speaking with the wise owl, the salmon and the stag (some versions have an eagle and blackbird too.) One theory for this particular story connecting to this time of year in particular is due to the parallels with a Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone, which explains the fading flora and fauna of autumn into winter.

In Druidry, the four cardinal sabbats have Welsh names. This equinox is named ‘Alban Elfed’, which means 'The Light of the Water', in stark contrast to the Spring Equinox, which translates to ‘Light of the Earth.’ The interplay between land, sea and sky moves throughout the year throughout the festival names, which I find is especially appropriate as the British Isles are... *drumroll* islands.

As is common in paganism, there are many overlaps with the festivals. Druids focus on gratitude in this festival: Thanking the earth as Mother or Giver for the harvest at summer’s end and, as the earth begins to sleep, withdrawal, sacrifice and death are big themes. In one open ritual, we carried scythes and sickles to represent the cutting of the corn, the sacrifice of plants to give us an abundance of food.

I think this aspect of thanksgiving is really specific for me because we don’t have any normal thanks-giving space or festival in British culture, except when studying our ancestors. We understand that our ancestors would see the sun’s power fading around this time, and thus it’s a time to bid farewell to the sun and rest, waiting for its return.  This is the time the land has given up harvest in reward of the hard work put into the agriculture over spring and summer, so harvesting, gratitude and hoarding for the winter were traditional.

Following the energy and life bursting forth in summer, the autumn is a space to pause. It represents the west as this is where the sun sets, and thus the energy tends to foster a sense of reflection and recollection as the year begins to close.

My Personal Practise

Preparing the Pantry. As a solitary pagan, I focus on almost a “spring cleaning” type of weekend, which allows me to preserve dying foods (cook/bake/freeze) and practically get rid of things I’ve not used ready to make room for new things next ‘cycle’ or year.

Focusing on Balance. As the year moves from light to dark, I consider how the summer went, what I enjoyed or didn’t, but also things I may have neglected (often more indoor activities) such as art, journaling and visualisation. I like to review the past few months, but also make plans that might need a bit of preparation over the next few months in order to be ready for Spring.

Meditation. I also tend to meditate more in the Autumn: awake from the freshness, but not too cold to get up makes this a LOT easier for me, personally. Again, it’s a form of reflection, harvesting my mental space and also harnessing my inner strength which might dwindle a little as the days get shorter.

Simple Cleansing. Baths, cleaning and de-cluttering, removing old to make space for the new. Anything which closes one aspect of life to let another door open. You get the gist.

Preparation. I also ‘prepare for winter.’ Usually this involves getting in the habit or putting my SAD lamp on, gathering some books to read, washing all my favourite blankets to snuggle up in and bring my hot water bottles down to the kitchen, ready for use.

Decide what to leave behind. It is a time of completion. And as the light half closes, step forward and leave behind those things that no longer serve you.

How do you celebrate the turning of the year?
Have more specific questions about British paganism or Druidry specifically? Ask them below!


Katy-Rose lives in South England, supporting young offenders in her community by day and coaching practical creatives to follow their inner fire by night.  She was loosely raised as Protestant Christian [Church of England] and began practising witchcraft in 2004. These days, she holds a somewhat-scientific view of the gods as being part of the field of energy yet refers to them by the elements. She most-closely connects to Druidry as her main path. 

Saturday, September 1, 2018

Autumn Equinox / Mabon: Ten ideas for solitary witches!

Below are ten crafts, altars, spells and ritual ideas for solitaries that either I personally, my coven or other covens have done throughout the past five years.  Enjoy!

Have a Mabon Feast
Known as the witch's Thanksgiving, the autumn equinox is a great time to have friends and family over for a seasonal potluck dinner, much the way Circle of Fountains did in 2015.

Create a Seasonal Altar
Use items you find in the park, your backyard or your local farmer's market to make a seasonal altar like I did in 2015.

Enjoy the Harvest Fire
Celebrate the start of autumn with a small fire like Circle of Fountains did in 2015.  Bonus if you add some fall treats like S'mores to the mix!

Celebrate Balance
The equinox celebrates equal day and night.  What better way to emphasize this than to light a black candle to release something and a white candle to draw something in as my coven did in 2013.

Apple Magic
Apples are the harvest of the season!  Research the may ways you could incorporate them into your ritual or altar!

Express Gratitude
Find a way to show your gratitude during this season of thankfulness.  One such way is to state what you're thankful for after each bite you take of an apple as I did in 2015!

Fall Cleaning
Cleaning out your home isn't just for the spring!  Do some physical and spiritual fall cleaning like I did in 2016!

A Transitional Sigil
Create a bind rune or sigil to help you with the transition from the lighter half of the year to the darker half as my previous coven did in 2014!

Seasonal Stone Chest
Paint a small box with the colors or themes of the season and fill it with a stone for something you'd like to invoke in the darker half of the year similar to what my coven did in 2016

Create a Cornucopia
Fill a cornucopia or basket you find at a thrift store with fruits, vegetables and leaves either as an altar decoration or as the centerpiece to your fall feast like I did in 2013!

I hope you have a blessed equinox!

Wednesday, August 29, 2018

Tasseomancy: The Art of Tea Leaf Reading

A form of scrying, tasseomancy or tasseography refers to the divinatory art of deposit reading in cups.  In fact, the tass- prefix of each word is French/Arabic for "small cup."  From this, tasseomancy can refer to coffee ground and wine deposit readings but most commonly points to tea leaf reading.  Tea leaf reading isn't necessarily an application of magic but rather a tool for tapping into the subconscious by meditation and pattern recognition - common themes in any form of scrying.  Sometimes preferred because of its imaginative flexibility, the diviner can discover their own symbols and system that work best for them.  However, this freedom can be irritating for those who require a more rigid system with clear-cut rules.  Either way, it's a craft that takes time to build and hone; tea leaf reading is not a practice learned overnight.  Today, we'll be exploring a brief history and the basic functionality of tasseomancy!


While many point to China or India for the origins of tasseomancy, no direct date can be found of this practice being used that early.  This isn't to dispute that tea leaf reading isn't something that developed there - there's just no current proof.  The earliest solid evidence, however, can be traced back to medieval Europe.

Tea itself first made its way to Britain from China in the mid-17th century through Dutch merchants.  It was originally an elevated, aristocratic beverage but, as trade fueled falling prices, the general population began to drink it.  Already culturally superstitious, lower classes were quick to use tea leaves instead of other cumbersome or dangerous methods of scrying previously employed, such as splatters of wax, lead and other molten substances, or animal entrails.  Tea leaves spread quickly through Scotland, Ireland, Wales and England, forcing potteries to craft elaborate teacup sets.  Some of these were designed to specifically aid in fortune telling, again providing evidence of this divination's use during that time period.  The earliest book on the subject, Reading Tea Leaves by a "Highland Seer," is the oldest book on the subject and notes generations of Scottish wives utilizing it as a divinatory tool.

During the Victorian Spiritualism era, tasseomancy gained significant popularity. Fascinated by the occult and the concept of self-analysis brought on by psychologists like Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer, Victorians turns to all sorts of esoteric practices, ranging from seances to tarot to, of course, tea leaf reading.  

This was further infused when Romani peoples took up the practice.  The Roma were, and still are to this day, forced to be itinerant due to terribly racist laws, brutal genocide and and enslavement.  Unable to work standard jobs as they were barred from employment, the Romani turned to services and crafts that could be maintained through their enforced lifestyle.  Tea leaf reading was one such practice.  While it did not originate within the culture, it's important to know that this is why fortune telling, such as this particular practice, is stereotyped with the Romani/Roma peoples and why you may see the slur "g*psy" attached to said divination system.  Being culturally aware and conscious of these issues makes us more protective, sensitive and helpful when these stereotypes are cast.

Modern tasseomancy has been infused to all cultures and people of various backgrounds, including Christianity and, of course, witchcraft.  From Appalachian folk practices to Sunday brunch, tea leaf reading is a way of incorporating a little magic into your daily routine.

Type of Cup and Pot

Tea cups are best for tasseomancy when they're shallow and wide-brimmed with a smooth, white interior.  A light-colored and plain cup from the inside is imperative as tea leaves form dark and sometimes busy readings that may be difficult to discern in a dark and busy cup.  A platter can also help maintain mess or provide additional surface for scrying.

Some cups are specially made for divination with tea leaves, including playing cards, Zodiac signs, planetary symbols and other such sigils to assist with your reading.  However, it should be noted that these cups are absolutely not necessary.  My favorite cup to read from is a plain white cup that I bought from a thrift store for $1.50, which you can see below.

For teapots, I wouldn't suggest anything fancy.  In fact, I boil water in a kettle and pour the hot water directly onto the leaves inside the cup.  However, if you prefer, you can use a teapot with no mesh or filter and steep the leaves inside that.  The important part of this entire method is to ensure there are leaves at the bottom of your cup when you finish drinking.

Types of Tea and Preparation

Of course, the most important aspect of tasseomancy is the tea itself.  The tea should be a loose leaf tea - not grounded and with no large leaves or twigs.  A uniform loose leaf is best.  Black leaves provide the most contract and clearest images, but any darker colored tea leaf will do.  This includes Chinese black tea, earl grey, ceylon and more.  You could even create your own tea as a way of emphasizing certain divination questions or psychic abilities.

While you could cup open a steeping bag from a brand-name tea, some circles advise against it, citing bad luck or intentionally improper readings.  Truthfully, tea leaves in tea bags are often so fine-ground that they barely leave a reading behind.  There is some logic behind the myth.  My suggestion is to do what works best for you.  There are few hard rules when it comes to tea leaf reading; only suggestions that make the practice easier.

For most cups, a half-teaspoon of leaves is more than sufficient.

Place the leaves in the cup first and then pour the appropriate temperature of water over it.  Allow it to steep before drinking.

Once steeped, you may add a little honey, sugar or lemon but you cannot add creamer if you plan to read the leaves.  The fat from the creamer can affect the coagulation of the leaves and either cause them to all fall out of the cup or stay in one clump at the bottom.  This will not make for a good reading.


From here, it's important to drink and enjoy the tea, using this time as a meditation to think of your question or topic, or to clear your mind if necessary.  Infuse your cup with your concern or with who you are for a clearer, more accurate reading.

Once you have a tablespoon of liquid left - or just enough to cover the leaves and allow them to move freely - hold the handle of the cup and swirl the liquid gently while thinking of your question.  Kind of like a shuffle of the cards for tarot or oracle, this will officially place that question into the leaves.

Some practices say to set the cup down with the handle facing you and turn the cup counterclockwise three times.  Others simply want you to set the cup down for a second.  Then flip your cup gently upside down on your plate and allow all of the liquid to drain out for a moment.  Some practices may want you to turn the cup three times while it's upside down or tap the bottom of the cup three times but, again, it depends on what you feel is right.

Once the liquid has drained from your cup, gently turn your cup over.  You should see tea leaves stuck to the sides of the cup as well as the bottom.  It may take some practice to get it exactly right so don't panic if that's not the case your first time around.  If you have some symbols within the cup, congratulations!  You're reading to do your first reading!

How to Read the Cup

Much like tarot and oracle card spreads, there are a number of ways to divide your cup for reading.  Here's just a few examples:
  • Bottom as past, middle as present, top as future.
  • Bottom as future, middle as present, top as past.
  • Rim as good, middle as neutral, bottom as bad, or reverse.
  • Handle is participant and the distance from the handle is your guide to the distance in the future.
  • Divide the cup into two halves with the handle as the middle point. The right side are potential positive outcomes and the left are potential negative ones.
  • Same division for yes/no questions.
The saucer could also be read in similar fashion to the cup if enough tea leaves fall to it, but it isn’t traditionally required.

Again, these are just various examples.  There's even more out there!  Additionally, if you're using a divination cup such as a playing card or Zodiac cup, you'll likely want to research the symbols to see what they mean and how they may apply.  I would strongly suggest, if you're just starting out, to stick with a plain cup until you feel comfortable adding a more complex system.

The Symbols

This is where things get tricky - and perhaps frustrating for those looking for an easy list.  What a cat means to one person may have the opposite meaning to another.  Rarely does a symbol mean the exact same thing to everyone.  Most traditions and practices, myself included, encourage the individual to develop their own list of symbols and interpretations through trial and error.  My suggestion is to make tea leaf reading part of your daily or weekly routine.  Keep a journal of your readings by creating clear drawings of your cups, pointing out individual symbols and then noting what happens throughout the day or week to learn the meaning of your personal signs.  Symbols to look for don’t always include actual figures (like trees, cats, people, etc).  They can also be lines, patterns, letters, shapes and more.  You may find that nonsensical symbols have the clearest meanings to you.

For those that dislike this method and want an easy list, while I don't suggest it, here's a hefty dictionary:  Click here.

The bottom line, however, is that repetition and recording are key to learning your tea leaf divination system.  Play with various layouts!  Make multiple interpretations of the same cup - one directly after, one after 24 hours and one after a week.  Try different interpretations of symbols - is that a snake or an S?  What difference does that make to your reading?  With dedication and time, tea leaf reading can become a divination system that is second nature to you!  Best of luck!